Davy, Z., & Toze, M. (2018). What Is Gender Dysphoria? A Critical Systematic Narrative Review. Transgender Health, 3(1), 159-169. (Open Access)

Abstract
In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the American Psychiatric Association has changed the diagnosis of gender identity disorder to gender dysphoria (GD). In this critical narrative review we ask: What is gender dysphoria? We report on some of the inconsistencies in the articles that foreground
distress while obfuscating the fact that not all trans and intersex people suffer stress or impaired functioning, and the inappropriate referencing to intersex people in the diagnostic criterion, claims about the GD diagnosis contributing to the depathologization of and reducing stigma surrounding trans people, the conceptualizations of ‘‘gender dysphoric’’ research subjects, and finally we question the etiological approaches using GD as a conceptual framework. We further suggest that there are a number of methodological issues that need to be resolved to be able to claim that the GD diagnosis can be validated. To shed light on these paradoxes and methodological issues in the DSM-5, we report on the content validity of GD by reviewing research articles postdiagnostic
inception. These findings will contribute to the debate about the validity of GD as a diagnosis for the 21st century for those people who need to live a different gender to that assigned at birth.

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/trgh.2018.0014

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Davy, Z. (2018 Online first). Genderqueer(ing): ‘On this side of the world against which it protests’. Sexualities, 0(0), 1363460717740255. doi:10.1177/1363460717740255

https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/handle/2086/15195

Deconstructionism as a method in transgender studies has been useful to
collapse concepts and ideas about (trans) gender and sexuality. In spite of
the usefulness of undoing the gender and sexuality canon, by way of
concentrating on trans gender practices, the resulting deconstructions
often leave us with no place to go. This article develops an analysis of
transsexual and genderqueer people’s bodily aesthetic assemblages,
challenging theorizations that exclusively pit transsexual people as
subjugated and genderqueer people as subversive. Drawing on interview
data from 23 transsexual and genderqueer people, this article argues that
transsexual and genderqueer people, regardless of their desire for
particular bodily aesthetic interventions and gender recognition,
productively flee, elude, flow, leak and disappear from categorizing legal
statutes and healthcare protocols. The article concludes by arguing that
deconstructive work becomes divisive and unproductive for theorizing and
understanding the bodily aesthetics and diverse connectivities and
affectivities of transsexual and genderqueer people, all of whom become
territorialized, deterritorialized and reterritorialized through polyvocal
bodily aesthetic assemblages.

2017-06-27-PHOTO-00000066

Jordan, A., Sundari, A., Jameson, J. and Davy, Z. (2018). Understanding student responses to gender-based violence on campus: negotiation, reinscription and resistance. In: Anitha, S, Lewis, R & Jones, R (Eds.). Gender based violence in university communities: policy, prevention and educational interventions in Britain. Bristol, Policy Press: .

Pleainfo and see hear poster

(Please note this initiative is no longer running)

This chapter presents findings from the ‘Stand Together’ action research project at the University of Lincoln (UOL), one of the first bystander intervention (BI) programmes designed to challenge gender-based violence (GBV) in a UK university. The research accompanying this project investigated student attitudes to GBV and the potential of prevention education. The focus of this chapter is on two sites which emerged in student accounts as key spaces where acts of GBV occur, as well as where sexist and heteronormative gender norms are re-inscribed, negotiated and resisted – social media and the night-time economy (NTE).

Democratising diagnoses? The role of the depathologisation perspective in constructing corporeal trans citizenship. Critical Social Policy (2017, Online first) Zowie Davy De Montfort University, UK Anniken Sørlie University of Oslo, Norway Amets Suess Schwend Andalusian School of Public Health, Granada, Spain

In the scope of the current revision process of the diagnostic manuals Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Other Health Problems (ICD), an international trans depathologisation movement has emerged that demands, among other claims, the removal of a diagnostic classification of gender transition processes as a mental disorder. The call for submissions launched by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and World Health Organization (WHO) seems to provide the opportunity for aparticipation of civil society in the DSM and ICD revision processes. These developments open up a number of questions for us that will be discussed in this article. We conducted a meta-narrative review to explore the trans depathologisation movement’s contribution to the DSM and ICD revision process, uncover evidence of a ‘democratised turn’ in the process and review depathologisation proposals implemented in trans healthcare practices, human rights frameworks and legal gender recognition processes. We argue that the trans depathologisation movement has had little impact on medical practices in trans healthcare. However, there is some movement in local health services towards an informed consent model for limited healthcare interventions. Within some European and South/Central American legal frameworks, the depathologisation movement’s demands to free legal gender recognition from medical interventions and examinations have, in different degrees, been incorporated into legal recommendations and enacted in some recent gender recognition laws.

 

School Cultures: Trans and Gender Diverse Children Parents’ Perspectives. School of Health Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Presentation1

2017-06-27-PHOTO-00000066

Children’s transgender issues have emerged from the periphery of general consciousness to center stage within human rights discourses, and as a controversial medical topic. Moreover, gender diverse children, known sometimes as trans (gender), are increasingly visible within the school system in the UK. Most of the small amount of research on gender diverse children in schools has been conducted in the United States (US) in which they often concluded that social service professionals, teachers, and administrators of schools are often uncomfortable with them. Additionally, many school service providers fail to create a safe and respectful atmosphere for gender diverse youth. This study I am presenting here sets out to look at this topic from a different angle and to explore the educational environments that families are experiencing in the UK with their gender diverse children. The study was created to understand parents’ and guardians’ views on the schooling system and the challenges they face in relation to being parents and guardians of gender diverse children.

Many parents who favor the gender affirmative approach will support their child’s social transition. A social transition consists of a change in social role to their affirmed gender or to a gender that cannot easily be situated within the binary system, and may include a change of name, clothing, appearance, and gender pronoun in all or most areas of their lives including at school. The safeguarding of the right of children and youth to education in a safe environment, free from violence, bullying, social exclusion or other forms of discriminatory and degrading treatment related to gender identity expressions is unquestionable. Although the UK’s Equality Act 2010 outlines requirements in relation to the provision of education and access to benefits, facilities and services for those people undergoing gender reassignment, this leaves gender diverse children at school in an ambiguous position due to them not being old enough to legally reassign their gender and it puts those children who are exploring their gender identity in a precarious position particularly at school where they spend a great deal of time. Many parents for example have been accused of forcing their children to become gender diverse or even transsexual because of the parenting styles and it is their fault that they are bullied at school. There is a need to identify the best way to support gender diverse children while at school, so as to maximize their future possibilities, health, wellbeing and quality of life.

 

What is Gender Dysphoria?: A meta-narrative review. ISHER Sexuality Conference, Bangkok

What is Gender Dysphoria?: A meta-narrative review

2017-03-30 What is Gender Dysphoria slides

Background

In the DSM-5 (APA, 2013), the authors have changed the diagnosis for trans people of all ages from Gender Identity Disorder (GID) to Gender Dysphoria (GD). They have also broadened the diagnosis to include intersex. The (contested) GD diagnosis is argued to better describe the distress that some trans and intersex people experience when their gender identity feels incongruent to their assigned sex. Critics have suggested however that the previous GID and current GD diagnoses are both stigmatizing and lacking in scientific rigor, and that the distress from experiencing gender identity differently to that assigned at birth does not necessarily emerge from gender incongruence per se, but from numerous psychosocial sources, including transphobia, familial and friendship rejection and bodily discontent. Moreover, the author has studied gender and sexuality for many years, and particularly trans gender and sexualities, and noticed that the term Gender Dysphoria was being used in particular ways in the literature, often differently from the diagnostic criterion. The present study is a meta-narrative review of the characterization of Gender Dysphoria.

Aim(s)

In this paper, we determine what GD is (in the literature), and then make some recommendations to journals’ editorial teams about characterizations of GD regarding consistency of use, descriptions of participants in the methodology sections of articles, and referencing in order to inform the rigor of publications in the area of trans and intersex people who continue to be stigmatized, pathologized and misrepresented in academic fora.

Methods

The present study is a meta-narrative review, which identified 426 papers, and asks simply: What is Gender Dysphoria? We searched multiple journal databases from all disciplines. The terms we used were Gender Dysphoria and Gender Dysphoric inclusive of the dates April 2013 and June 2016.

Results

We coded the literature inductively resulting in a number of substantive narrative themes. We have developed an analysis, which tells the stories of how GD is characterized in sexological, medical, sociological and the humanities literature. The major themes we will be drawing on in this paper are: 1. Gender dysphoria as identity, which includes sub-themes of identity (mis)characterizations, identity management and research samples. 2. Gender dysphoria as distress, which includes sub-themes of body, social and sexual distress, clinical thresholds and etiological stories. 3. Gender Dysphoria and Health Policies will include sub-themes of Gender Dysphoria and Teamwork and Guiding Principles.

Genderqueer(ing): ‘on this side of the world against which it protests’ @ Queer Studies Looking Back, Looking Forward, University of Surrey (Keynote)

img3Deconstructionism as an analytical approach in transgender studies has been useful to collapse concepts and ideas about (trans) gender and sexuality. In spite of the usefulness of undoing the gender and sexuality canon, by way of concentrating on the deconstruction of trans gender practices, the resulting affects often leave us with no place to go. This article develops an analysis of transsexual and genderqueer people’s bodily aesthetic assemblages. I will challenge theorizations that pit transsexual and genderqueer against each other in these deconstructive moves and who suggest that transsexual people are subjugated to medicolegal structures and genderqueer are free to be whoever they want to be. Drawing on interview data from 23 transsexual and genderqueer people, this talk will argue that transsexual and genderqueer people, regardless of their desire for particular bodily aesthetic interventions and gender recognition, productively flee, elude, flow, leak and disappear from categorizing legal statutes and healthcare protocols in multiple ways. The article concludes by arguing that queer deconstructive work becomes divisive and unproductive for theorizing and understanding the bodily aesthetics and diverse connectivities and affectivities of transsexual and genderqueer people, all of whom become territorialized, deterritorialized and reterritorialized through polyvocal bodily aesthetic assemblages.

What is Gender Dysphoria?: A meta-narrative review.

The 2nd EPATH conference, Belgrade, 6-8th of April 2017

2017-03-30 What is Gender Dysphoria slides

Presented with Michael Toze

Background

In the DSM-5 (APA, 2013), the authors have changed the diagnosis for trans people of all ages from Gender Identity Disorder (GID) to Gender Dysphoria (GD). They have also broadened the diagnosis to include intersex. The (contested) GD diagnosis is argued to better describe the distress that some trans and intersex people experience when their gender identity feels incongruent to their assigned sex (Davy, 2015). Critics have suggested however that the previous GID and current GD diagnoses are both stigmatizing and lacking in scientific rigor (Hegarty, 2009; Davy, 2015), and that the distress from experiencing gender identity differently to that assigned at birth does not necessarily emerge from gender incongruence per se, but from numerous psychosocial sources, including transphobia, familial and friendship rejection and bodily discontent. Moreover, the author has studied gender and sexuality for many years, and particularly trans gender and sexualities, and noticed that the term Gender Dysphoria was being used in particular ways in the literature, often differently from the diagnostic criterion. The present study is a meta-narrative review of the characterization of Gender Dysphoria.

Aim(s)

In this paper, we determine what GD is (in the literature), and then make some recommendations to journals’ editorial teams about characterizations of GD regarding consistency of use, descriptions of participants in the methodology sections of articles, and referencing in order to inform the rigor of publications in the area of trans people and intersex people who continue to be stigmatized, pathologized and misrepresented in academic fora.

Methods

The present study is a meta-narrative review, which identified 598 papers, and asks simply: What is Gender Dysphoria? We searched multiple journal databases from all disciplines. The terms we used were Gender Dysphoria and Gender Dysphoric inclusive of the dates April 2013 and June 2016.

Main Outcome Measures

N/A

Results

We coded the literature inductively resulting in a number of substantive narrative themes. We have developed an analysis, which tells the stories of how GD is characterized in sexological, medical, sociological and the humanities literature. The major themes we will be drawing on in this paper are: 1. Gender dysphoria as identity, which includes sub-themes of identity (mis)characterizations, identity management and research samples. 2. Gender dysphoria as distress, which includes sub-themes of body, social and sexual distress, clinical thresholds and etiological stories. 3. Gender Dysphoria and Health Policies will include sub-themes of Gender Dysphoria and Teamwork and Guiding Principles.

Conclusion

We will draw together the narrative characterization of Gender Dysphoria, the implications and limitations of the eclectic array of usage in academic literature. We will make some recommendations about how best to make more rigorous the use of the diagnostic concept across the disciplines, attest its misuse and clarify what Gender Dysphoria is.

Trans Social Movements and Mental Health Issues

In the first sections of this paper I explored some of the discourses from trans social movements which have utilized the available science and knowledges in the area to contest the pathologization of trans people. They are asking in what ways changing Gender Identity Disorder to Gender Dysphoria (GD) in the DSM-5 lessens the stigmatization of trans people, and also how the different strands of the trans depathologization movement challenge the GD classification in the DSM-5. To examine these points, I will describe some of the strategies, political praxis, and claims from transgender community organizations’ and advocates’ websites, forums, and blogs (which are by nature international in their scope). I wish to post a methodological caveat: I will not have reached all the internet sources available. Indeed, it is not my intention to be exhaustive. Notwithstanding these limitations, my internet source analysis arguably reaches a fair representation of the various discourses that are circulating within the trans depathologization movement, particularly in relation to contestations surrounding the newly formed diagnosis in the DSM-5. This will then lead to an overview of why the latter depathologization of trans people is important for approaching mental health concerns of some trans people.

http://www.dmu.ac.uk/about-dmu/news/2017/february/annual-dmupride-conference-attracts-lgbt-experts-from-far-and-wide.aspx

 

 

School Cultures and Gender Variant Children: Parents’ and Guardians’ Perspectives

Jennifer Pellinen Transgender Flag.jpgA TransGender-Symbol Plain3.png

We are looking for volunteers to take part in a study about parents and guardians who support their gender variant or transgender children at school.
As a participant in this study, you will be interviewed by an experienced researcher about both the limits and positive aspects of school culture in relation to your child.
Your participation would involve an interview at a place that you feel comfortable with and will last about 1 hour. In gratitude for your time, you will receive a £10 Gift Card.


For more information about this study, or to volunteer for this study, please contact:


Dr Zowie Davy, School of Applied Social Science, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH
at
zowie.davy@dmu.ac.uk

or

tel. no 0116 257 7844


This study has been reviewed by De Montfort University Research Ethics Committee and received ethics clearance.